tax planning for real estate

Tax Planning for Real Estate in Ghana is essential for investors looking to capitalize on the highly profitable opportunities in cities like Accra and Kumasi, which have experienced significant growth and development in recent years. Real estate transactions in Ghana are complex and come with substantial tax implications that can significantly impact profits. In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the critical taxation issues that real estate investors in Ghana must grasp and offer valuable tips for effective tax planning.

Overview of Tax Planning for Real Estate Investors in Ghana

Some of the main taxes that apply to real estate investments in Ghana include:

  • Income Tax – This applies to rental income earned annually. The income tax rate in Ghana is 25% for companies and individuals.
  • Capital Gains Tax – A capital gains tax of 15% applies anytime an investor sells a property that has appreciated in value.
  • Value Added Tax (VAT) – Commercial real estate tenants usually pay VAT of 3-5% on rental payments. Landlords can offset this against VAT paid on expenses.
  • Stamp Duty – This tax applies to legal documents when buying or selling properties. The rate is 0.5% of the property value.
  • Property Tax – Local government authorities levy this annually on commercial and residential properties. Rates range from 0.5% to 2% of the assessed property value.
  • Gift Tax – A donor may incur gift tax of 5% when transferring a property as a gift. The recipient also pays stamp duty.
  • Inheritance Tax – Beneficiaries of inherited properties pay a tax of 5% in Ghana.

Understanding these key taxes applicable to real estate transactions in Ghana enables investors to adequately plan their investments while remaining tax compliant. Proper planning can help minimize tax in Ghana liabilities.

Tax Planning for Real Estate Tips for Investors in Ghana

Here are some important tips and strategies for tax planning real estate investors in Ghana can use to optimize their tax position:

Incorporate and Hold Property Under the Company Name

  • Incorporating and holding investment property under a company rather than personal names allows for significant tax savings.
  • The income tax rate for companies is a flat 25% compared to up to 30% for individuals in the top tax bracket.
  • Companies can claim capital allowances for depreciation of buildings to reduce taxable rental income.
  • Losses under personal names cannot be offset against other income. For companies losses can be carried forward.
  • Transferring property from personal names into company names may incur capital gains and gift tax. Proper planning is needed.

Expenses Deduction

  • Costs like interest, repairs, maintenance, insurance and agent fees are tax deductible against rental income.
  • Careful record keeping of expenses is important to reduce income tax.
  • Consult professionals to identify all allowable expenses for deduction.

Use Tax Reliefs Available

  • Take advantage of tax reliefs provided in law like loss relief provisions.
  • Offset property tax and interest cost against rental income.
  • Claim capital allowances on buildings and fixtures. This provides tax relief over time as the building depreciates.

Timing Asset Acquisition and Disposal

  • Properly time acquisition of new rental property and disposal of existing properties.
  • Acquire near the end of the fiscal year to take advantage of allowances.
  • Dispose of assets held for the long term in a separate tax year to spread capital gains tax liability.

Use Strategic Business Structures

  • Certain business structures like trusts and partnerships can help reduce tax liabilities.
  • Have special purpose vehicles hold specific investment properties.
  • Establish a holding company with subsidiaries owning properties separately.

Comply With Obligations

  • Strictly adhere to tax reporting deadlines and payment dates.
  • Ensure ongoing obligations like provisional tax and withholding tax on tenants is met.
  • Keep comprehensive records to avoid penalties and additional taxes.

Tax Planning for Real Estate Considerations When Buying Rental Property

Purchasing a rental investment property has significant tax implications in Ghana that investors should evaluate carefully:

Stamp Duty

  • A stamp duty of 0.5% of property value applies on purchase.
  • A higher rate of 1% applies if the property is bought from a non-citizen.
  • Payable within two months of acquisition.

Legal Fees

  • Legal fees for conveyancing, searches and preparing agreements deductible against rental income.

Property Taxes

  • Become liable for local government property taxes after acquisition.
  • Tax calculated as a percentage of assessed property value – ranges from 0.5% to 2%.

Capital Allowances

  • Can claim capital allowances on the building structure at an annual rate of 2.5% over 40 years.
  • This spreads the tax deduction on the building cost over the years to reduce income tax on rentals.

Financing Costs

  • Interest cost on the mortgage to finance the purchase of rental property is tax deductible.
  • Reduces net rental income subject to tax.

A real estate investor should work closely with tax professionals when purchasing property to maximize tax benefits. Proper structuring of the acquisition is key.

Tax Planning for Real Estate Considerations When Selling Property

Selling rental investment property also involves navigating capital gains tax and other taxes:

Capital Gains Tax

  • A flat rate of 15% of gains made from selling property.
  • Payable within 30 days after disposal of property.

Legal Fees

  • Legal fees paid for sale agreement preparation and registration are deductible against capital gains for tax purposes.

Stamp Duty

  • A stamp duty of 0.5% of property value applies to the buyer.
  • The seller does not pay stamp duty.

Sale Timing

  • Structure sales in separate tax years from other major transactions to spread capital gains tax liability.
  • Consider selling just before year end to push tax payment to the next tax year when cash proceeds are available.

Use of Losses

  • Capital losses from the sale of one property can be offset against capital gains from the sale of another to lower tax due.


  • Main residence exemption allows first GHS 50,000 gains tax free when selling a primary residence.

With the right strategy, investors can reduce capital gains tax liability when selling real estate investments in Ghana.

Tax Planning for Real Estate Compliance Tips for Ongoing Rental Property Ownership

Owning and operating rental property comes with ongoing tax obligations that investors must comply with:

File Annual Tax Returns

  • Declare rental income and claim allowable expenses by the due date of 4 months after year end.
  • Keep proper books of accounts for accurate reporting.
  • Failure to file returns on time attracts penalties.

Make Quarterly Provisional Tax Payments

  • Make instalment tax payments during the year based on projected rental income.
  • This avoids last minute lump sum payments and penalties for underpayment.

Withhold Tax on Tenant Payments

  • Withhold tax of 8% on payments by residential tenants.
  • For corporate tenants, withhold tax of 20% for rent and 15% for services like utilities and maintenance.

Remit Withholding Tax

  • Remit withholding tax deducted from the tenant’s payments to tax authorities by the 15th of the following month.
  • File monthly returns declaring withholding tax payments.

Keep Records

  • Maintain comprehensive records of income, expenses, tax payments and asset costs.
  • Proper documentation is needed to claim deductions and allowances.

Report New Acquisitions

  • Report any new rental property purchases to tax officials within 30 days of completing the acquisition.

Staying current and compliant with reporting and payment obligations keeps the taxman satisfied and avoids penalties that can eat into returns on rental property.

Utilizing Professional Tax Planning for Real Estate Advisory Services

Tax rules related to real estate investment in Ghana can get complicated. Working with respected tax professionals can facilitate proper tax planning and compliance:

Tax Planning Advice

Seeking tax planning advice on the acquisition, ownership structures and sale of rental investments ensures taxes are minimized.

Tax Compliance

Property taxes like municipal rates and national taxes have different reporting needs. Professionals help maintain compliance.

Returns Preparation

Accurate reporting of rental income, expenses, capital allowances and taxes paid requires professional tax return preparation.

Ongoing Advisory

Laws and regulations change frequently. Ongoing advisory from tax experts keeps investors updated on new developments.

Tax Audit Support

In case of a tax audit, professionals can provide required documentation and represent investor’s interests.

Dispute Resolution

Professionals can negotiate tax assessments and help resolve administrative disputes with tax authorities.

Utilizing professional tax advisory services is key to effectively navigating the complex tax landscape property investors face in Ghana. It provides peace of mind.


Tax Planning for Real Estate is crucial for leveraging the wealth creation potential of real estate investment in Ghana’s rapidly expanding economy. However, the applicable taxes significantly impact returns on property investments. With adequate planning using tips like holding properties under a company structure, timing acquisitions and sales, maximizing deductions and allowances, and selling strategically, investors can optimize their after-tax returns. Working closely with tax professionals also provides a helpful framework for maintaining compliance and minimizing tax liabilities. Applying these best practices enables investors take advantage of Ghana’s high rental yields while prudently managing taxation.

For seamless real estate investment success in Ghana, engage the expert team at VAAL Ghana.


1. What are the main taxes applicable to real estate investments in Ghana?

Key taxes for real estate investors in Ghana include income tax on rentals, capital gains tax, VAT, stamp duty, property tax, gift tax and inheritance tax. Understanding these taxes allows for proper planning.

2. What expenses can real estate investors deduct against rental income for tax purposes in Ghana?

Allowable deductions against rental income include mortgage interest, repairs, maintenance, insurance, agent fees and related operating costs. This reduces income tax liability.

3. How can real estate investors minimize capital gains tax when selling property in Ghana?

Strategies like offsetting capital losses, timing the sale, claiming exemptions and deductions for fees paid can help minimize capital gains tax liability upon disposal of a rental property.

4. What are the tax compliance responsibilities of a real estate investor owning rental property in Ghana?

Key compliance duties include filing timely returns, making quarterly provisional payments, withholding tax on tenants, remitting withholding tax and keeping proper records. This avoids penalties.

5. How can a real estate investor optimize their tax planning in Ghana?

Engaging tax professionals for advisory services on planning, compliance, reporting and dispute resolution provides specialized support to minimize taxes and avoid costly mistakes.